In short, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or Electromagnetic Compability (EMC) means that any electrical or electronic product can operate without affecting other electrical or electronic products, or that it operates without being affected by other electrical or electronic products. There are hundreds of electrical and electronic devices that fall under such a definition.
Such devices or systems have many components that emit electromagnetic waves. For example, capacitors, printed circuit elements, port leaks, poor quality cables, inductors, electromechanical devices, digital circuit elements and many more can be counted.
Electromagnetic compatibility tests have shown that these devices or systems do not interfere and are immune to interference from other devices.
During these tests carried out by accredited testing and inspection organizations, it is established that the products are manufactured in accordance with the principles of the applicable legal regulations and meet the requirements of the relevant standards.
Electromagnetic compatibility tests cover a wide range of products, such as televisions, radios, computers, stereos, washing machines, microwave ovens and mobile phones, which are indispensable in everyday life. In addition, it is important to conduct electromagnetic compatibility tests for high-tech products. For example, airplanes, ships, large industrial plants and automobiles.
Electromagnetic compatibility problems were first recognized during World War II. It was realized that the main cause of several unfortunate events at that time was electromagnetic incompatibility. More recently, in 1967, there was an accident in the US Navy and close to 140, the sailor lost his life. Since then, more emphasis has been given to electromagnetic compatibility problems and some criteria and standards have been set.
To put it simply, EMC tests are performed to ensure that products falling within the scope of the directive work in harmony within the same electromagnetic environment. In general, these tests are carried out under two main headings: emissions and immunities.
Countries' testing approaches vary. For example, in the United States only emission tests are required. In the European Union countries and in our country, both emission tests and immunity tests are required.
All electrical and electronic devices are expected to perform their functions in the electromagnetic environment without causing problems. EMC tests are performed to prove this.