Electronic compatibility problems, which mean that electrical and electronic devices and systems work without affecting each other, first arose during World War II. A number of unidentified malfunctions and faults in military applications during the war were later discovered to be due to electromagnetic compatibility. Therefore, the first published standards on electromagnetic compatibility have been in the military field. After investigations, it has been determined that the main cause of a series of problems is electromagnetic interference.
In fact, uncontrolled events in the military area due to electromagnetic interference have caused vital losses. For example, in 1967, one of the rockets on an American aircraft carrier fired itself due to electromagnetic waves emitted from the ship's radar. In this accident, close to 140'a sailors lost their lives. The financial dimension of the incident is over 170 million Dollars.
During the 1980 years, American ground forces helicopters crashed due to electronic interference caused by transmitters in the vicinity. More than 20 soldiers lost their lives in these accidents.
During the Falklands war in 1982, Britain lost a destroyer due to electronic interference. The destroyer had to shut down the missile detection system in order to make satellite communications. Because these two electronic systems affect each other during operation. At this point, a missile destroyer sent by the other side hit the destroyer and the destroyer received heavy mat. Besides the casualties, the financial dimension of this event has exceeded 200 million Dollars.
In order to avoid these problems, it is very important that the electronic devices to be used for military purposes are electromagnetic compatible. A number of standards have been developed for this purpose. Here are a few of them:
- MIL-STD-461C Military standard - Electromagnetic emission and self conditions for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)
- MIL-STD-461D Military standard - Requirements and stability for the control of electromagnetic input emissions
- MIL-STD-461F Military standard - Requirements for checking the electromagnetic interference characteristics of infrastructure and equipment
- MIL-STD-462D Military standard - Measurement of electromagnetic interference characteristics
- UK Defance Standard 59-41 and 59-411 Electromagnetic Compatibility
- RTCA DO160C, D and F Aircraft standards
Test and inspection organizations carry out all kinds of tests required by military standards with their technological background and knowledge.